Prise en charge des thymomes chez l'homme : développement de cultures de cellules épithéliales dérivées de tumeurs pour la compréhension des dérégulations de la cellule tumorale

Abstract : Human thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) are rare (250 – 300 cases/ year in France). We distinguish thymomas (A, AB and B subtypes) with indolent evolution (5 years actuarial survival in early stages >95%) and more aggressive thymic carcinomas (5 years actuarial survival <20% in stage IV). Surgical complete resection when feasible is the corner stone of a multimodal therapy and the most significant factor on survival. Relapse of TETs principally in pleura for thymomas (75%) and general for thymic carcinomas are difficult to treat. Therapeutics advances are limited given the lack of studies models of tumoral thymic epithelial cell. In a multidisciplinary approach for the treatment of metastatic pleural relapse of thymomas we developed an innovative surgical technique: cytoreductive pleurectomy associated with hyper thermic intra pleural chemotherapy (Cysplatin/ Mitomycin; 42°C) (ITCH). In selected patient (n=19), ITCH provides an efficient alternative to the morbid pleuro pneumonectomy. The median of free disease survival was 53 months, one year and five years actuarial survival were respectively 93% and 86%. However, the effectiveness of ITCH procedure questions on the played role ok hyperthermia, on the choice of chemotherapy association. With the aim to improve TETs therapies, the knowledge of TETs biology to identify potential target therapies is currently challenging. We developed an in vitro study model of tumoral thymic epithelial cells derived from 12 TETs (11 A, AB and B thymomas and one thymic carcinoma) characterized by their proliferative abilities and the cytokeratin expression. The PIK3 / Akt / mTOR pathway is implicated in numerous cancers. Several phase I, II studies advocate the potential role of mTOR inhibitors in the control of the metastatic disease. We highlighted the expression and the activation of mTOR, Akt and P70S6K effectors in TETs and in thymic epithelial cells in vitro derived. We showed the efficacy of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) in the inhibition (-30%) of in vitro cell proliferation without cell death induction. Our results suggest the implication of the PIK3 / Akt / mTOR pathway in the tumoral cell growth. We established a new tool to study cell dysregulation in TETs. In the context of rare tumors, these cells could allow in vitro mechanistic studies and test the efficacy of new anti tumoral therapies
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Submitted on : Thursday, October 17, 2019 - 4:51:08 PM
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Jean-Michel Maury. Prise en charge des thymomes chez l'homme : développement de cultures de cellules épithéliales dérivées de tumeurs pour la compréhension des dérégulations de la cellule tumorale. Biologie cellulaire. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE1063⟩. ⟨tel-02319150⟩

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